William M. Brown, Ph.D.

Piedmont College

School of Education


Learning and Cognition EDUC 607 – Syllabus B

Summer 2009


Mastering the Art of Teaching: Preparing Proactive Educators to Improve the Lives of All Children



I.               Course

EDUC 607 Learning and Cognition

Prerequisites: None

3.0 Credit Hours



II.        Instructor


Office: VVVVVV

Phone: (706) 778-3000 CCCCCCC

Email: HHHHHHHHHHH                                    Fax # (706) 776-0135

Office Hours: By appointment.


III.       Course Time and Place                                               Summer Semester, 2009


Class Location: IIIIIIIIIIIII           


IV.       Text(s)




Healy, Jane M. (2004). Your Child’s Growing Mind: A guide to brain development and learning from birth to adolescence. (3rd ed.). Random House, New York.


Sousa, David A. (2001). How the Brian Learns: A classroom teacher’s guide. (3rd ed.). Corwin Press, California.


In addition to those readings from the texts listed above, other readings may be assigned to meet particular needs of the class or particular students. These readings will include professional documents related to learning and cognition. Also, copying some materials to share with the class may be required.


V.        Course Description & Purpose

“A study of the basic principles of human learning and cognition and their practical applications in education including the selection of appropriate methods, materials, and experiences. This course will focus upon ways to apply learning theories to classroom instruction. (Field experience required.) Piedmont College Catalog.”


The purpose of this course is to study the complex and fascinating processes of human learning from the perspective of twentieth century psychological theory. One basic assumption underlying the development of this course is that the better we understand learning processes, the better we may design instruction to maximize desired learning. Consequently, this course will focus upon ways to apply learning theories to classroom instruction.

In this course we will look at several different theoretical perspectives on learning, cognition, and cognitive development. As we'll see, no single theory can account for all aspects of human learning. By looking at a variety of theoretical perspectives, we can identify a range of tools that may be useful in understanding learning and teaching in a variety of settings.


Our primary goals are:

·       to become conversant with the basic assumptions, concepts, and principles of each theory

·       to determine the possible implications of each theory for instructional settings

·       to compare their usefulness in the various settings of interest to you and other educational professionals.


VI.           Course Policies & Procedures


1. Class Attendance/Participation Policy

This course requires your participation in discussion/activities that cannot be duplicated at another time except during the assigned class time. Attendance, timeliness, and participation are required and part of your grade. The School of Education policy states that more than the allotted number of excused absences for any reason will result in failure of the course. The allotted number of excused absences for this course is one (1). Additionally, tardiness or leaving class early will be considered a partial absence reflected in your grade. Work missed due to an excused absence may be made up. You should ask your “study Buddy” for a copy of class notes and write a comprehensive summary of the content that was covered in class. Be sure to include a cover page. If work is not made up, the highest grade a candidate can receive for the course is a B. Any candidate who misses more than one class will be asked to drop the course or will receive an F at the end of the semester. However, if makeup work is approved by the professor and satisfactorily completed, a passing grade is still possible. Also understand that reading a classmate’s notes cannot easily duplicate many of the experiences of the course.


INCOMPLETES – A candidate may receive an incomplete (I) for reasons such as illness or other extenuating circumstances upon approval of the course instructor and the dean. An incomplete is not granted just to extend time to complete work that should have been done in a timely manner. (See page 57 of the 2002-2003 Piedmont College catalog for additional information regarding an incomplete).


If the candidate’s illness is extended, causing more than two class absences, the candidate may need to request in writing a medical withdrawal. If the Registrar approves the request, a candidate may receive a “W” for the course.


INCLEMENT WEATHER – In general, classes are dismissed or cancelled (day and/or night classes) when conditions in and around Demorest become such that the main streets and college parking lots become too dangerous on which to drive. Candidates who live outside the Demorest area for which road conditions are too difficult to proceed should stay at home. Candidates who miss class should consult their instructors for assignments and make-up work. Dismissed or cancelled classes must be made up during semester breaks, the first available Saturday, or an agreed upon make-up by class members and the professor. When classes are dismissed, the following radio/TV stations will be informed of the action taken: Station WCON (99.3 FM) – Cornelia; WMJE (102.9 FM) – Clarkesville/Gainesville; and WXIA TV – 11 Alive.


PARTICIPATION - Active participation in this course is required.

Active participation means that you prepare for classes by reading the text and/or other assigned readings and that you take active part in discussions and activities conducted during class.

Ø     prepare for classes by reading the text and/or other assigned readings;

Ø     attend all classes for duration of allotted class time;

Ø     take active part and contribute significantly during class discussions and activities;

Ø     are attentive and respectful of peers and the professor during the discussions, dialogue, and presentations; submit all assignments on time.


Class begins promptly at 5:50pm. Class ends at 10:10pm. Feel free to quietly excuse yourself from the class if a bathroom break is necessary.


2. Written Work:

Use APA style (5th ed.). All papers for the course are to be typed using size 12 print and one of the following fonts: Bookman, Times New Roman, Geneva, or similar font. Papers should be double-spaced, error-free, and grammatically correct (including punctuation, spelling, capitalization, etc.). Make good use of writing references such as dictionaries, writing handbooks, and computer spelling and grammar checks.


Quality is important! Work submitted should reflect your professionalism and graduate level work. Your writings and reflections will be assessed according to the depth, breadth, clarity, and accuracy they convey. Be sure to keep a duplicate copy of all submitted work for your own records.


3. Academic Integrity/Professional Code of Ethics

a.   Academic Integrity:

By accepting admission to Piedmont College, each candidate makes a commitment to understand, support, and abide by the "Academic Integrity Policy" without compromise or exception (See the Piedmont College Catalog and the Student Handbook for details of the policy). This class will be conducted in strict observance of the policy. The College imposes strict penalties for academic dishonesty (cheating, fabrication, facilitating academic dishonesty, and plagiarism) as defined in the Catalog and Handbook.


Some suggestions for helping you abide by the policy include:

Ø     All work submitted must be your original work created in and for this course.

Ø     Cite and reference work properly using the current APA guidelines.

o      Cite all quotes or paraphrased material. It is better to over cite than not give credit to the author of a work or source that you are using in your paper or project.

§       Any time you use the exact words of researcher, author, or source, you must place the words in quotation marks when your quote is less than 40 words. If more than 40 words, place the quote in an indented block omitting quotation marks. (See the APA Manual for specific guidelines).

§       You must also give credit to an author or source when you paraphrase.

§       When referring to information from your course text, be sure you cite and reference the source and/or authors.

§       Follow the protocol in the current APA manual for citing and referencing all electronic sources.

Ø     Double dipping is not permitted. For example:

o      You may not use an assignment created in one course to meet the requirements in another.

o      Visiting a classroom for one field experience may not be used to meet a field experience requirement for another course.


b.   Professional Code of Ethics:

The State of Georgia Professional Practices Commission has adopted a Code of Ethics for professional educators. A complete text of the Georgia Code of Ethics is on file at the Division of Education office. Based upon this code, expectations for professional conduct have been outlined by the Division of Education faculty as a minimum standard to which students enrolled in all teacher education programs will be held. These include:


·       interacts in a professional, cooperative way with faculty, staff, peers, and children; treating all others with dignity and respect;

·       is regular and prompt in attendance;

·       meets deadlines and get assignments in on time;

·       demonstrates a strong knowledge base and seek to improve competence through continuous learning;

·       models correct use of oral and written standard English; keeps current on developments in pedagogical methods; exhibits enthusiasm in teaching and learning;

·       demonstrates a strong personal moral code and sound character exemplified by honesty, fairness, courage, dependability, and generosity worthy of respect and trust;

·       demonstrates emotional suitability for teaching;

·       does not violate civil and criminal laws or the Piedmont College student conduct code.


4.   Special Considerations

Piedmont College makes every effort to provide reasonable and appropriate accommodations to students with disabilities.  Accommodations must be coordinated through the Office of Academic Support by contacting the director at 1-800-277-7020 ext. 1359 or by email - dtaylor@piedmont.edu   Students are  responsible for providing accurate and current documentation of their disability and for making a written request to the Director of Academic Support before receiving accommodations.  Students with special needs (disabilities, problems, or any other factors that may affect their performance or that require special instructional strategies) should also make these needs known to the professor/instructor during the first class session.


5.     Cell Phone Usage

Cell phones should not be used during class time. Use only prior to the beginning of class or during break. If you need to be contacted due to a crisis, critical, or emergency situation, you should leave your phone on vibrate and respond appropriately and professionally. Notify the professor in advance when possible.


6. Disclosure & Distribution of Grade


The registrar will mail you your final grades one week after the conclusion of the semester. You may provide me with a self-addressed stamped envelope with adequate postage to cover the costs of mailing your final grade, papers, etc. If you choose this option I will mail the final paper/product within one week of the conclusion of the class. You may also choose to visit me during my office hours after grades have been turned in to the registrar. Please note that in December and May I may be absent from campus as a result of holidays and/or vacation. If this is the case, you may make an appointment to reclaim your graded product(s) during the beginning weeks of the following semester. In accordance with the Students Right to Privacy Act, no products/student work will be left unattended in the main office for repossession. You should please make arrangements, based on the options outlined above, for retrieval of your graded final product(s). Final products left longer than one semester will be discarded and no longer available.


Incompletes will only be given in the cases outlined in the catalog. “Extenuating circumstances” refers to situations like a death in the immediate family, a seriously ill child or family member, call to active duty, or a similar event. You will need to provide medical or other official documentation. An incomplete will not be given when you do not meet any final deadline, have had a work conflict, could not get the work done, or took a vacation during the final exam, etc. The Dean of Education, who will follow the policy outlined in the Piedmont College catalog, must approve all incompletes. The Piedmont College catalog states “when prolonged illness results in extended class absences, a student may request permission in writing from the registrar to withdraw from courses. A grade of “W” will be given for medical withdrawals. Withdrawals based on circumstances other than illness will be assigned a grade of “W: or “WF” based on the determination of the Academic Vice-President.


VII.       Student Expectations and Course Outline


Learning to Learn for Learning's Sake

Throughout this course I would like you to consider the difference between doing only what is expected to get a certain grade and learning. With this thought in mind, my expectation for your success in this course is to create an attitude and environment for you to optimally process and bring together the culmination of professional studies and experiences from your educational studies at Piedmont College, and to reflect on your own evolving professional “persona.”


Throughout all of our discussions in class it is important that you recognize and understand the underlying thoughts/ideas associated with the topics discussed. If, at any time, you become confused by me elaborating “too much or too richly,” politely interrupt and say: “Dr. Brown, where’s the beef?” This will cue me to isolate and explain the main idea(s) more succinctly.


“I cannot teach you anything, I can only help you think” – Socrates

1. Instructional Methods

This class will operate as a democratic classroom. Candidates will engage in shared decision- making and in taking responsibility for making the classroom the best it can be. Interactive discussions and problem solving will be emphasized where all ideas and contributions are explored and respected. Various approaches will be utilized by the candidates and professor including: lecture, demonstrations, observations, class discussions, small group discussions, cooperative group work, field observations, use of educational technology, student presentations, readings, writings, listening, questioning, and formative and summative evaluations.


2.   Assignments

a. Assigned Readings


Readings from the assigned texts will be the focus for discussions, writings, and/or group activities. Please read the assigned readings before coming to class in order to facilitate quality discussions. Think about how the readings relate/could relate to your classroom teaching experiences. Also keep in mind that you are responsible for the reading assignments even if we do not go over them in class.


All work for the course is to be in on time, or handed in on an agreed-upon future date. Work handed in late will be lowered one letter grade. Work more than 3 days late will be given an “F” grade. Completion of all assignments is required for a passing grade in the course. If at any time you are unclear about assignments or expectations, please contact me for clarification. Other assignments or activities may be required as deemed necessary to assure the mastery of the course objectives as stated.                                


b. Written Work

Unless told otherwise, all written work for this course is to be typed, double-spaced, 12 pt., 1" margins (top, bottom, left, right) and grammatically correct. It must conform to the style found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (5th Ed.). For more information on the APA style, see: http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html

All papers for the course are to be typed using one of the following fonts: Bookman, Times New Roman, or Geneva. Papers should be error-free and grammatically correct (including punctuation, spelling, capitalization, etc.). Make good use of writing references such as dictionaries, writing handbooks, and computer spelling and grammar checks.


All final papers, reports, etc. should have a cover sheet with your name, course number and name, assignment, and date clearly typed on the front, in the middle of the page and centered. At the bottom of the cover sheet the following should be typed and signed below:


“The work submitted here is my own. I have proofread this paper and, to the best of my knowledge, this work is error-free and grammatically correct (including punctuation, spelling, capitalization, etc.)”


Signature ____________________________________










Always keep a duplicate copy for your own records of everything you turn in.


c. Description of Assignments


What knowledge is worth understanding?

- Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe -

This course will be taught with “themes/big ideas” in mind. Themes may be thought of as the big ideas you are expected to retain after many of the details of the course are forgotten. Within each theme, concepts are listed that are important to know For example, in our discussion of the first theme, “Physiological Needs of Children,” various concepts such as Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, Food, Water, Shelter, and Sleep will be discussed and related to learning. Handouts will accompany discussions. Specific pages and/or sections in our textbooks will be emphasized.


“For any subject taught in primary school, we might ask (is it) worth an adult’s knowing, and whether having known it as a child makes a person a better adult.”

- Jerome Bruner -



1.     Physiological Needs & Stress

2.     S-R Theory & EQ

3.     Growth & Development.

4.     Hemispheric Specialization/Individual Differences/Learning Styles

5.     Information Processing

6.     Concepts in Teaching and Learning

7.     Lateral Thinking & Creativity


1.  Essential Questions

This course is divided into “themes.” There are specific “key knowledge” concepts and “essential questions” listed for each theme. The essential questions are designed to help guide you to uncover the heart of the key knowledge concepts. The key knowledge and essential questions will also be used as a guide for the content of the theme summaries (next assignment, #2 below). Answers for essential questions should include, besides the textbooks and other secondary sources (internet, journals, etc.), comments from notes taken during class discussions.


In addition to answering assigned essential questions, you will generate 1 “higher-level, probing, wonder, speculative” essential question of your own, along with a possible answer.


You are to have a “study-buddy” with whom you will exchange, review, and edit each other’s essential questions prior to their submission to me. At submission of your essential questions, your work should list: This work was reviewed and edited, prior to submission, by my study-buddy (list name).


Even though you work with a partner, each student will send me, via WebCT, hand delivery or e-mail, your Essential Questions by an assigned time and day agreed upon in class.


2. Theme Summary & Theme Summary References

2a. Theme Summary


For one of the themes we discuss, you will submit a summary paper (4-5 pages) related to class discussions, notes, activities, and/or readings from our text. You should use the essential questions as a foundation for the Theme Summary. Citations should be on a separate page at the end of each summary paper. In your summary paper, you should include the gist of the questions listed with each theme that we should discuss in class. You may include a reading notation and reflection in your summary. You will receive a grade for the summary paper.


The summary paper will also be used in the final Professional Resource Portfolio. You will receive a grade for the summary paper, and well as a separate grade for the final portfolio. A theme summary is due at the end of the course. The theme summary is also to be reviewed by your “study-buddy.”


2b. Theme Summary References


It is essential to read and keep current about learning and cognition practices that may enhance instruction. Accordingly, for each summary, you will include a reference to one journal article (may be Internet article) and two different books (our textbooks???) from within the last seven years related to the particular theme you choose to write about. Be sure to include complete bibliographic information (5th edition, APA style). You may be asked to present a short, oral report on each of the articles for each theme.


When writing the summary, make sure you adequately describe, find relationships, and apply the concepts. Remember:


“Imagination is more important than knowledge” - Einstein



3. Professional Resource Portfolio – FINAL PROJECT


The purpose of this assignment is to have, on file for future use when teaching, valuable documentation related to learning and cognition that may be shared with colleagues, parents, and/or to just refresh the memory to improve effectiveness in the classroom. The Learning and Cognition Professional Resource Portfolio will contain work from each theme, any graphic representations, illustrations, text, or graphics of the themes that we discussed. There should one (1) article pertaining to each theme we study. Throughout the duration of this course, you may be asked to present a short, oral report on the article chosen for each theme. Proper citations should be stated when necessary. Use tabs, categorize and sub-divide the file and include a detailed table of contents. Each section should also include the “Essential Questions” that you completed in class on each theme. The required Summary Paper should be included where necessary. The SLEI assignment will also be included in a separate section at the end of the portfolio.


Grading Guidelines for the Professional Resource Portfolio: The Professional Resource Portfolio will be graded according to the reworking and completeness of essential questions assignments, completeness and professional presentation of portfolio, and quality of sources selected. The Professional Resource Portfolio may periodically be handed in for formative evaluation and feedback. The final presentation of the Professional Resource Portfolio will receive one, overall, final grade for this assignment.


4. Professionalism/Participation


Your regular attendance is expected. Punctuality and attending class will be added into your final grade. Two points will be given for each class attended. If you are tardy to class or leave early, you will receive only 1 point for attendance. Identify a class buddy who will pick up papers, etc. in case of your absence. See attendance policy for written assignment when missing class.


The Participation grade will include bringing your 2 textbooks to class each class meeting.



5. Assigned Reading Notations

For each theme, all students will cite, on a separate page, 1 quote from our text, Your Child’s Growing Mind or How The Brain Learns, and discuss, on a second page the significance of the quote related to learning. Details of this assignment will be further discussed and developed in class.


6. Field Experience: Case Study - Student Learning Environment Inventory (SLEI)


a. For this part of the field experience, you will create a Student Learning Environment Inventory.


Action research provides teachers with an opportunity to adapt theory to practice. It also helps them to develop a critical and reflective eye for their own instructional practices. The systematic collection of classroom data through action research presents teachers with a view that could "catalyze" a change and facilitate informed decision making with regard to issues related to learning and the classroom environment. This assignment will prepare you to become more active in the assessment of your future classroom environment.


All teachers have a vested interest in their classroom environment, as the quality of the classroom environment is a significant determinant of student learning. The term, ‘environment’, however, carries with it a variety of meanings, as students and teachers define the classroom environment based upon their personal perceptions. This assignment will assist you to better understand each perspective by comparing student to teacher perceptions of the classroom environment.


For this assignment, each student will design a Student Learning Environment Inventory related to each theme we discuss in class. Questions for the inventory should reflect the major concepts listed with each theme. There should be 3 questions for each theme. The inventory should have two sets of questions, one set for student perceptions and one set for teacher perceptions, i.e., one set for students in the class to answer and another set for the teacher to answer. The format of the Inventory should be in a “likert scale” format, with the range being:


0-Not Observed (NO) 1- -Sometimes Observed (MAYBE) 2- Very Often Observed (YES)


This is a “pre-action” research assignment. You design the 1st ½ of the SLEI the first 4 meetings of class. After week 4 you will then begin part b of this field experience assignment.


b. For this part of the assignment, you will use the Student Learning Environment Inventory with a child.


Your primary task for this assignment is to identify, evaluate, and work with any student of your choice (son, daughter, niece, nephew, neighbor, etc.). You are expected to interview this student using the Student Learning Environment Inventory you create. This is not intended to be a library research paper. You, however, will write a 2-3 page summary of your findings. You do not necessarily need to use any resources other than reflect on the questions from the Student Learning Environment Inventory. If you do use other sources, I'll expect attributions and citations as for any other academic paper.


This assignment should reflect the Student Learning Environment Inventory you designed and is not simply a summary of the content of the course readings or a log of your experiences working with a student; it is a synthesis of significant ideas which were generated by the readings and discussions of this course and the inquiry experience with the identified student.


Describe the important and/or useful ideas you found during our course discussions when interviewing your child with the Student Learning Environment Inventory. This includes a discussion of any assumptions or trends in the readings with which you disagree or concur.


This assignment is due at the last class meeting where you will present your case study results to our class.


Please Note: There will be assignments requested, emanating from class discussions/activities, that may not be specifically mentioned in this syllabus.


VIII.     Resources




Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R. (eds.). 2000. How People Learn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.     


Other references will be presented during the course of each theme we study.



IX.      Evaluation Criteria


Course grades are dependent on the percentage of the total points earned


           Essential Questions                                                                                  45%

Theme Summary                                                                                     10%

            Final Professional Resource Portfolio                                                          20%

            Professionalism/ Participation/On-Time Assignments                                                15%

Field Experience Case Study: Student Learning Environment Inventory                        10%


X.            Tentative Schedule


This course will be taught with “themes/big ideas” in mind. For example, in our discussion of the first theme, “Physiological Needs of Children,” various concepts such as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (Food, Water, Shelter, and Sleep) will be discussed and related to learning. Handouts may accompany discussions. Specific pages and/or sections in our textbooks will be emphasized.


Assignments and illustrations will be available for presentation and duplication on WebCT.        


Text Box: It is at the discretion of the instructor teaching this course
to ADD OR DELETE certain essential questions listed for each theme.
Notice !






















I. Physiological Needs & Stress

“Each child weaves his own intellectual tapestry,

the quality of which depends on active interest and involvement in a wide variety of stimuli.

The home environment provides the raw material for this masterpiece”

(Healy, p. 20)

Key Knowledge:






·       Learning Climate, Stress, Emotions, Cortisol (Sousa, 83-84)




Essential Questions:


1.     What is stress? Describe Good and bad stress. State and describe five (5) examples related to the classroom/school setting.


2.     Describe Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Paste image of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs from Internet. Describe the Triune Brain. How do the different levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy relate to or align itself with the triune brain?


3.     Describe the “Home Scale” (Healy, 33-35). How does the Home Scale relate to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, stress levels and learning?


4.     At each level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs,describe/give examples of how Maslow’s physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem, self-actualization needs apply/are incorporated into the K-12 classroom/educational setting?



Hutchinson, L. (2003) ABC of learning and teaching: educational environment. British Medical Journal, Vol 326 April 12, p 810-812.


5.     What is Rapid Eye Movement (REM)? Why are REM important for retention of information into memory? What is the difference between Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) and Rapid Eye Movement (REM)? What affect will it have on a child and learning?


6.     What is Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD) (“Night Owl Syndrome”)? Discuss how Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder is related to Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and why REM is so important to learning. Discuss how a “sleep diary” might help to “combat” DSPD? SEE: http://www.sleepfoundation.org - Sleep Diary for Kids


7.     What is Seasonal Affective Disorder (S.A.D.)? How does seasonal light affect our learning? What can a teacher suggest to a parent to counteract SAD?


8.     Find one (1) reading notation (quote) of significance to you from your readings. List the quote and reflect (1/2 – 1 page) on it.


II. S-R Theory & Emotional Intelligence


Key Knowledge:


§       Brain-Body Connection: neurochemicals for learning (Healy, 15-16); Conditioning (Healy, 231): Neuron, Motor Development (Sousa, 24-25); Nerve Message Transmissions - Synapses, Neurotransmitters (Sousa 21-22; 78) Mylelin Formation/Mylenation (Healy 20-22. Sousa 21).


§       Classical Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov (Sousa, 83). Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner).


§       Premack’s Principle/ "Grandma's Rule," - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premack_principle


§       Triune Brain. http://www.buffalostate.edu/orgs/bcp/brainbasics/triune.html



§       Downshifting – Learned Helplessness (Healy, 248); Sousa (52-53).


§       Self-Concept (Sousa, 52-53). Motivation (Healy, 93, 242-51, See Index). (Sousa 65-67); Challenge 244. People are motivated to engage in an activity when it is perceived as having value for reducing needs. This desire/motivation to act is called “drive.” The stronger to the need, the stronger the drive, and the more likely a person will engage in a particular activity (ex. drug addicts).


§       Challenge (Healy, 244); Motivation Theory: Value/Level of Concern, Expentancy, Need/Drive;


§       Observational Learning, Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura). Mirror Neurons (Sousa, 23).


§       Emotions & Learning - Fight or Flight Response (Healy 99; Sousa 43-44, 53-54; 61-64; 83-85, 245)


§       Emotional Control (Sousa, 26)


“IQ is the ability to learn something new”

– Reuven Feuerstein - (Healy, 225)


§       Intelligence - IQ (Sousa, 104-106; Healy Chapter 8).

§       Multiple Intelligences - Interpersonal/Intrapersonal Intelligences (Healy, 227)

§       Marshmallow Study (Healy 103-104) Emotional Intelligence – EQ/EI (Healy, 229)

§       Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Analytic, Creative, Practical Intelligence. (Robert Sternberg) (Healy, 228; Sousa 104)

§       Emotions and Learning; Emotional Memory (Sousa 83-85)

§       Amygdala (Sousa 19, 53)

§       Effort & Achievement (Healy 242-253).

§       Flow - Optimum Learning State (OLS) (Healy, 362); Conscious/Unconscious Thought

§       Emotions; “emot” = to move toward” (Healy, 99; Sousa, 26, 83-85)

§                Social and Emotional Learning Programs (SEL)

§                Pygmalion Effect (Healy, 222).

§       Home Scale (Healy 33-35)



“If you are patient in one moment of anger, you will escape a hundred days of regrets.”

- Chinese Proverb –


Essential Questions:

1.     What is meant by intrinsic motivation? What is meant by extrinsic motivation?


2.     Describe Classical Conditioning (Pavlov). Discuss if Classical Conditioning is related to intrinsic or extrinsic rewards, or both? Give an example when Classical Conditioning applies to the classroom setting.


3.     Describe Operant Conditioning (BF Skinner). Discuss if Operant Conditioning is related to intrinsic or extrinsic rewards, or both? Give an example when Operant Conditioning applies to the classroom setting.


4.     What is “flow”? List 5 characteristics of “flow” as per M. Csikszentmihalyi. http://lateralaction.com/articles/mihaly-csikszentmihalyi. How are/are not intrinsic and extrinsic rewards relate to flow? (Healy, 244-245)


5.     Find a description of a Motivation Theory at: http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/a_motivation.htm and then answer: How would intrinsic and extrinsic rewards relate to the motivation theory you describe? (Healy, 245).


6.     Describe American psychologist Martin Seligman's foundational experiments and theory of learned helplessness. Then, in your own words, describe what is Learned Helplessness related to a student?


7.     What is downshifting? (See WEBCT Theme 2 Illustrations S-R Theory - “Downshifting”).


8.     How is “downshifting” be related to related to “Learned Helplessness?”


9.     What is the purpose of the amygdala in our brain? Describe how emotions affect learning. Describe how the amydgala is related to downshifting and learned helplessness? What can a teacher do to “offset” downshifting and learned helplessness? (HINT: Healy, 244: “The “unmotivated,” who may rarely have experienced the joy of mastering a difficult problem, need …………………………..”). (Sousa 44, 85; Healy 15-16, 243-244).


10.   There are two different responses to threat, or the “fight or flight” reaction: 1) Via the amygdala, which is a more alarming and automatic response than: 2), a more rational response passing through the neocortex. When threatened, we choose either an emotional reaction via the amygdala or a rational reaction via the neocortex of the brain (Healy 23,47).


a. What is Cognitive Behavior Modification (CBM)?


b. How is Cognitive Behavior Modification (CBM) related to the fight or flight response?


c. Describe how we teachers can condition our students behavior in classrooms to “alter behavior” and respond via the neocortex (rational thinking) instead of through the amygdala (emotionally reacting) using Cognitive Behavior Modification?


11.     What is self-concept? How does downshifting and learned helplessness relate to self concept? (Sousa 52-53, 85)


12.     What is self-efficacy? How does self-concept relate to self-efficacy? How does our self-efficacy affect learning? (Sousa 53-54).


13.     What is self-concept? How does self-concept relate to self-efficacy? How does our self-concept affect learning? (Sousa 53-54).


14.     What is meant by Emotional Intelligence (EQ)? What are the five characteristics of EQ? What is meant by Howard Gardner’s Interpersonal Intelligence? What is meant by Howard Gardner’s Intrapersonal Intelligence? How do Howard Gardner’s Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligences relate to 4 of the 5 characteristics of Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence (EQ)?


15.     Why are Interpersonal and intrapersonal Intelligences so important for the success of a student?


16.     Why is “Flow” so important for the success of a student?


17.     What are Social and Emotional Programs (SEL)? (Look for “Second Step” and “Wings for Kids” on Internet). How do they relate to and foster/nurture EQ? Why might SEL programs be important to develop in your classroom?


18.     Find one (1) reading notation of significance to you from our texts. List it. Reflect (1/2 – 1 page) on it.


“Children do not desire to fail. From the day they are born, children are naturally motivated to learn, to master their environments, and to feel competent.”

(Healy, 2005: 91)


III. Growth & Development


“Childhood is a process, not a product, and so is learning”

- Jane Healy -

Key Knowledge:


§       Jean Piaget – Stage Development (Healy, 22-23). http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_09/i_09_p/i_09_p_dev/i_09_p_dev.html


§       Reflexes/Motor Skills/Fine Skills Development (Healy 78, 115, 162; Sousa 25)



§       Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR), (Internet Site; Sousa 25, 96. Healy, 84-84; 108).


§       Writing (Healy, 115, 294-298). Healy 43; Article: “Handwriting Doesn’t Have to be a Lost ArtMontessori Life v. 13 no. 4 (Fall 2001) p. 38-41 (Locate on Piedmont College Library “Wilson Web” http://library.piedmont.edu/elecres/elecres.html (scroll down to bottom!!)


§       Movement, Vestibular System, Brain Gym – Internet (http://www.braingym.org/) & Sousa (229-232; 240-241) (Healy, 22-24, 104)


§       School Readiness: Brain Development Healy 28-31; 42; 56, 69, 75-77; Lagging Timetables, Healy 84-89; Chapter 4


§       “Google”: Factory-model schools - Linda Darling-Hammond. http://www.pbs.org/nbr/site/features/special/WIP_hammond1/


§       Brain’s Cerebellum: movement/motor skills, attention, LTM, spatial perception, impulse control (Sousa 20-21; 231-232; Healy 23; Brain’s Frontal Lobes (Healy 125-126)


§       Critical Periods of Development (Healy 24, 116, 125. Sousa 24-27).


§       Concrete to Abstract Learning Paradigm; (Sousa 95; Healy 22, 79, 108 – 112; 125-127, 137-139, 162). Concrete – Symbolic – Abstract Representations (Healy 332-335).

§       Paivio: Encoding – Dual Coding Theory (Sousa 230); “Visuospatial sketchpad” (Sousa 45)


§       Educaré, Constructivism. Meaningful Learning - Concrete Experiences: Healy 59-60


§       Hands-on experiences connect students emotionally to content (Sousa, 84-85)


§       Lev Vygotsky ZPD, Scaffolded Instruction (Healy 64, 107)



§       Enriched Brain (Healy 35-36; 371-372). Einstein’s Brain (Healy, 372-373)

Marian Diamond (Healy, 371)


§       Enriched Environments (Sousa 24, 27-29; 61-65) (Healy, 16, 34-43, 74-75; 101, 371-372 – “Rats” Marion Diamond).

a.      Movement (Healy, 16, 22-24); Play (Healy, see index), Brain Gym

b.     Water (Sousa pg.22-23); Neurochemical Balance (Healy 17-19)

c.      Music in the Classroom (Sousa, 23, 46, 366, 222-224; 234-236)


“When people asked him (Jean Piaget) whether we could accelerate children’s progress through each stage (of development), he scoffed at what he termed ‘the American question.’”

- Jane Healy, 2005: 75 -


Essential Questions:


  1. Describe and discuss sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational stages (Piaget) related to:

a.      According to Piaget, what is taking place at each of these stages?

b.     age, i.e., approximately how old are children at each of these stages?

c.      K-5, 6-8, 7-12 grade levels, i.e., what grades are children in at each of these stages?


2.     How does each stage of Piaget relate to:

a.      concrete to abstract learning? (see illustration)

b.     concrete-symbolic-abstract learning experiences described by Healy as the building blocks of thought?


3.     What is the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) & scaffold instruction? (Vygotsky). How do these concepts apply to teaching/learning? http://www.vtaide.com/png/ERIC/Scaffolding.htm


4.     What is cognitive apprenticeship? How does the ZPD relate to cognitive apprenticeship? http://www.edtech.vt.edu/edtech/id/models/cog.html


5.     Describe Jane Healy’s “concrete – symbolic – abstract thought paradigm.” (textbook, pg 332-333). Discuss how the Concrete to Abstract Learning illustration from WebCT is similar and/or different to Jane Healy’s concrete – symbolic – abstract thought paradigm.


6.     How does Jane Healy’s concrete – symbolic – abstract thought paradigm (textbook, pg 332-333) relate to Piaget’s stage development theory?


7.     What is the Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex? (http://stophyper.com/) How are gross motor skills related to the development of fine motor skills? Explain why improper development of the STNR and crawling are important to fine motor skills development, which, in turn, relate to ADD, handwriting, etc. (http://crawlingclub.org/adhd-treatment-guidelines http://crawlingclub.org/adhd-stnr-crawling-links).


8.     Find one (1)) reading notation of significance to you from our texts. Reflect (1/2 – 1 page) on it.


9.     Find 1 article related to theme. Discuss ½ page why you find it interesting.


IV. Hemispheric Specialization/Individual Differences/Learning Styles

Key Knowledge

§    Individual Differences – Sorting: function vs. appearance


§    Hemispheric Specialization/Laterality/Right Brain, Left Brain (Sousa, Chapter 5; Healy Chapter 6; 145-162; 174-180)


§    Field Dependence/Independence Teaching/Learning Styles


§    Paivio: Encoding – Dual Coding Theory (Sousa 230); “Visuospatial sketchpad” (Sousa 45)


§    Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI) – “One size does not fit all”


§    Auditory/Visual (Sousa 230, 237)/Kinesthetic Learning (Sousa 58-60); (Healy 148, 167, 227, 296-297, 323-326, 343).


§    Reasoning Spatially (Healy, 292-294).


§    Learning Style Dominance Profiles (Sousa, 57)


§    Nonlinguistic Representations (Robert Marzano)


§    Visualization (Healy, 297-299. Sousa 245 –“representational system”)


“Treating students differently is not unfair, on the contrary, treating students differently is respecting their individual differences.” (Anon)


“One of the most important gifts a parent can give a child is the gift of that child’s uniqueness.”

(Mister Rogers)


Essential Questions


1.                                                                                                                                                                                     What are the characteristics and key ideas of: Hemispheric Specialization: Right/Left Brain Functions? Right Brain, Left Brain, Whole Brain (http://ezinearticles.com/?Right-Brain,-Left-Brain,-Whole-Brain&id=1996841)


2.     Describe characteristics and key ideas of Hemispheric Specialization related to your brain dominance preference.


3.     Reverse your brain dominance preference. Describe characteristics and key ideas of Hemispheric Specialization related to your OPPOSITE brain dominance preference. What is it like to process information?


4.     Describe your brain dominance preference and how might your personal brain dominant-style preference be looked at from a student in your classroom’s perspective who is opposite to your dominant-style perspective?


5.     How might gender-related mental/intellectual, developmental differences contribute to downshifting and learned helplessness in the K-2 educational settings where instruction might be straight-forward, one-size-fits-all sequential processing of information? (Healy 168-174; Sousa 172-177)


6.     Discuss gender differences related to “why over twice as many boys as girls are in remedial and special education programs nationally” …, and why “there are over 11 percent more girls than boys enrolled in gifted and talented programs.” Sousa, 177 ( Sousa 172-177); Healy 166-177


7.     Describe what is meant by “modifying minds” according to Reuven Feuerstein. (Healy, 225-227).


8.     What is meant by “individual differences?” What are “aptitude-treatment interactions” (ATI)? How do ATI’s support learning style differences? Give an example. (See WebCT Illustrations – Theme 4))


9.     Find one (1) reading notation of significance to you from our texts. Reflect (1/2 – 1 page) on it.


10.   Find 1 article related to theme. Write ½ - 1 page reflection





V. Information Processing

Key Knowledge

Information Procession Model (Sousa, Chapter 2, 3) (Healy, 46-47; 232--236)

Reticular Activating System (RAS) (Healy, 23. Sousa 42-43)

ADD, ADHD (Healy, 96-107)

Working memory/Short Term Memory STM (Sousa 42-47)

Wait-time (Sousa, 126); Level of Questions (Sousa, 269; Healy, 63-64)



Schema Theory (Piaget) (Healy, 57-60; 74), Engram (Sousa 78-79).


Short Term Memory

Chunking (Sousa, 41, 46, 109-112, 130-131)

7 +/- 2 Miller (Sousa 45-46)

Prime Time – Down Time (Healy, 38; Sousa, 85-95)

Primacy-Recency Effect (Sousa, 89-90;121-122).

Time on task – Time off task. Lesson Transitions – Off Task, On Task (Sousa, 94)


Memory – (Healy 230-242; 236-242. Sousa, 79)

Assimilation, Accommodation, Disequilibration

Declarative (Explicit), Nondeclarative (Implicit) Memory (Healy, 230-231; Sousa, 80-83)

Meaningful Learning (Sousa. 49-50; 68-69; 86-87, 118-119; 262; Healy 62-63; 112, 138, 158, 235-236)


Mnemonic Techniques: Acronyms, Loci, Pegwords (Sousa, 132-133); Retrieval, Recognition, Recall (Sousa, 71-72; 106-108), Automaticity (Healy, 99-101; 119-123; 292; 342-343), Forgetting (Sousa, 112), Confabulation (Sousa, 115-116)


Long Term Memory (Sousa 48-49; 69-71),

Repetition/Rote Rehearsal, Elaboration/Elaborative Rehearsal (Sousa 86-88)

The mere repetition of information, maintenance rehearsal, is sufficient enough to keep information in working memory but insufficient enough to move information into long-term memory. Rehearsal that helps learners make associations between new information they already know, called elaborative rehearsal, does facilitate storage in long-term memory. Four processes …meaningful learning, internal organization, elaboration, and visual imagery are clearly more effective methods for long-term memory storage.


Tramatic Brain Injury (Teaching Exceptional Children March/April 2002, 62-67).

Lesson Design, Instructional Methods (Sousa 95, 97-101, 124, 276-281, 284); Guided Practice (Sousa, 124)


Essential Questions

  1. What is “wait-time?” What is wait-time I? What is wait-time 2? From the information processing model, why is wait-time important for processing information? How does wait-time relate to stress in learning/teaching? How does wait-time relate to the level of questions (low, high) being asked?


  1. What is maintenance rehearsal? What is elaborative rehearsal? Discuss the difference between maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal?


  1. What is Prime-time 1, Down-time, and Prime-time 2? How does Prime-time 1, Down-time, Prime-time 2, relate to teaching a lesson with an introduction (hook), body, and closure.


  1. What is meant by the “Primacy-Recency Effect?” How does Prime-time I, Down-Time, and Prime Time II relate to the Primacy-Recency Effect and, in turn, relate to the design of an instructional lesson? (Sousa 121-122). (Discuss when/why new information should be presented (prime-time 1), why down-time is when students elaborate on new material to get new information from short-term to long term memory, and why summarizing information at the end of a lesson (prime-time II) is important.


  1. When and why are off-task activities important? (Sousa, 94).


  1. How does the “reticular activating system” (RAS) work? How can we “wake up” the RAS in our students when teaching? How can we captivate their attention and wake up the RAS?


  1. What is an “engram” (Sousa, 79)? What is a “schema” (Piaget)? How may an engram, a physiological phenomenon, be related to a “schema”, a mental phenomenon?


8.     Find three (3) reading notations of significance to you from our texts. Reflect (1/2 – 1 page) on two of the reading notations.



VI.       Concepts in Teaching and Learning & Metacognition

“Doing worksheets in school prepares a student emotionally to do worksheets in life.”

- Robert Sylwester -

A Celebration of Neurons: An Educator’s Guide to the Human Brain.

Even the highest tower begins from the ground” – Chinese Proverb –


a. Concepts in Teaching & Learning


§       Concept Formation – Critical Attributes (Sousa, 144, 151-155). (Healy 129-130 “categories”; 61-65, 332-336; 341-342; 354)


§       Expert-Novice Relationships & ZPD (Healy, 61 - “Patterns are the key to intelligence”)

§       Bloom’s Taxonomy – Difficulty vs. Complexity (Sousa, 256-260; 265-268)

§       Thinking (Sousa, Chapter 7) “Too often children are given answers to remember rather than problems to solve” - Robert Levin - (Sousa, 242)


§       Patterns and Relationships (Healy, 61-65) “Brain scans show that different parts of the brain are involved as the problem-solving task becomes more complicated” (Sousa, 244)


§       Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) (Sousa 269-270) Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS), Constructivism (Sousa, 258). Convergent-Divergent Thinking (Healy 364-371; Sousa, 254)


§       Transfer (Sousa, Chapter 4)


§       Discovery/Inquiry/Inductive Learning-Teaching

§       Expository/Traditional/Deductive Learning-Teaching (Healy 130)

§       Authoritarian, Authoritative, and Permissive parenting styles. (Healy, 99; 245-246 Berk article)

§       Active Learning (Healy, 296). Generative Learning – Whittrock



§       Situated Learning - Cognitive Apprenticeship

§       Synergy/Cooperative Learning (Sousa, 73-74); Think-Pair-Share

§       Writing and Spelling (Healy, 261 – 289. Sousa 178-184). Reading (Jane Healy: 227 – 260. Sousa 184-190; 207-211).


§       Middle Schools (Healy, 114-118)




b. Metacognition


Key Knowledge


§       Inner Speech/Behavior/Choice. (Meichenbaum – Cognitive Behavior-Modification/Intervention (Search “Meichenbaum” on Internet) (Healy, 132).

The effects of cognitive-behavior modification on private speech and task performance during problem solving among learning-disabled and normally achieving children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1986 Mar;14(1):63 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3950222&dopt=Abstract


§       Metacognition - Think Aloud (Healy, 57; 103-104; 132, 251-252; Read Aloud -65); Feedback System (Healy 132)


§       Reciprocal Teaching (Predicting, Questioning, Clarifying, Summarizing): http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2recib.htm and http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~yq6048/


Essential Questions: Concepts in Teaching and Learning & Metacognition


1.     What is a fact? What is a concept? How do we form concepts? Search Internet for “CONCEPT FORMATION HILDA TABA”. GIVE AN EXAMPLE of forming a concept.


2.     Describe Bloom’s Taxonomy. What are “low-level questions”? Describe. What are “high-level questions”? Describe. Give an example of a low-level question. Give an example of a high-level question.


3.     Describe assimilation, accommodation, disequilibration, the relationship between these concepts, and GIVE AN EXAMPLE in school of how knowledge is constructed according to Piaget’s Constructivist Theory of Assimilation, disequilibration/Accomodation. ( Healy 57, 74). Illustration on WebCT.


4.     What is active and generative learning? How does “learning is something that children do, not something that is done to them.” (Jane Healy, Your Child’s Growing Mind, 374) relate to active and generative learning?

http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/EdPsyBook/Edpsy2/edpsy2_active.htm http://www.cdli.ca/~dfurey/metacog/generate.html


5.     Describe Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). How does this relate to Sousa: “We do not teach the brain to think. We can, however, help learners to ORGANIZE content to facilitate more complex processing.”


6.     What is the “critical difference between complexity and difficulty’? (Sousa, 256-258). Jane Healy says: “… patterns are the key to intelligence” (Healy, 61). Describe how patterns are related to novice-expert knowledge and related to complexity and difficulty. (Healy, 61-65)


7.     How does the level of questions a teacher asks pertain to Bloom’s Taxonomy?


8.     How does the level of questions a teacher asks pertain to the ZPD?


9.     What are Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)? What are Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)? Discuss Bloom’s Taxonomy to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) vs Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS). Discuss Bloom’s Taxonomy related to difficulty versus complexity,


10.   What is transfer? List and describe strategies that foster transfer (Sousa 147-164).


  1. What is metacognition? What is “inner speech?” (Healy,103; 251-252). Describe a possible relationship between inner speech and metacognition?


12.   How could the late development of inner speech in a child be related to intellectual “success in school” and\or behavioral problems? (Berk). Inner Speech - Language Development (Healy: 214-217; Chapter 7. Sousa 25-26).


  1. Laura Berk (Scientific American November, 1994: 78-83) states that “the most profitable intervention lies not in viewing private speech as a skill to be trained but rather in creating conditions that help children use private speech effectively.” Relate and elaborate on what she is saying to the classroom environment? GO TO: http://www.abacon.com/berk/ica/research.html


  1. Piaget believed that “young children engage in egocentric speech, whereas much of their talk is for themselves and serves little communicative function.” (Berk, 78). Vygotsky (Social Development Theory), however, “described a strong link between social experience, speech and learning.” (Berk, 78). What makes sense to you? Why? Look at – http://facultyweb.cortland.edu/andersmd/VYG/VYG.HTML or http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jbattenb/Papers/agres.html; www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1179.pdf; www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/lanjie.pdf



Theme VII. Lateral Thinking & Creativity: Gifted & Creative Children (OPTIONAL ASSIGNMENT/READING)


“Many believe that the roots of creativity also lie at this junction of concrete and symbolic experience…”

(Healy, p. 61)

Key Knowledge

§       Socratic Questioning

“Bright children are not necessarily on the fastest train”

(Healy, 82)






Essential Questions

“Learning is the greatest game in life and the most fun. All children are born believing this and will continue to believe this until we convince them that learning is very hard work and unpleasant. Some kids never really learn this lesson and go through life believing that learning is fun and the only game worth playing. We have a name for such people. We call them geniuses”. - Glenn Doman –


1.     What are differences and similiarities between being creative and being gifted as described by Jane Healy?


2.     Respond to: “I think everybody is born with wonder, and that society beats it out of you … (Carl Sagan (1982). In Carl Sagan: Reviving Our Sense of Wonder.” By Louise Sweeney. Christian Science Monitor, March 18, 1982, pp. B6-B10.


3.     What is meant by “reversible thinking/ reversible problem solving?”



“Our children are the messages we send to the future.”

- Chief Sequoia -

You are the teacher. What is the message to your students?